And if we turn back to Pindar, we note that points of similarity between 01. 157,287, Phil. Nem. $æÚµfÑôˆÂeÇç%ÐôR˜¬Ò³åRÈÅX 346s*’p];G"³Æ$n£Ì§«f½èó:òF¤ôŠ€#Å7d~㋅HáJål. ... Olympian 7: Diagoras of Rhodes, Boxing-Match (464 BCE). 45-48. 4Cited in the scholia (Drachmann I 195). The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. La psychanalyse du feu. 7.44 i\ printed with a lowercase p by recent editors (Bowra. ZIIt is worth noting that before the institution of a torch race for Pan (Hdt. 11. Vernant and Detienne. As Erikh- thonios is either protected by snakes (Apollod. On Athenian autochthony as celebrated in the festival see Loraux, Les enfanrs 35-73, esp. Athens and Rhodes are far apart. Kiihner, Raphael, and Bernhard Gerth. And unlike in Athens, where Hephaistos' semen, literal and metaphorical. Moreover, the image of the golden shower melts together the liquid wine and the golden goblet of the proem, which are emblematic of the wedding feast and its associations. 79For a summary of Rhodian history see von Gaertringen, "Rhodos" 753-63. This juxta- position of verb and object becomes particularly pointed in the context of the sacrifice. Aphr: 7-15; Aesch. race. before koruphan is heard, that pateros is a genitive of possession taken closely with Athanuin. 44Dittenberger, Syllogr3 1055.77 ( = IG 11' 2311.77). Pindar 283, believed, a literal elaboration of the metaphor in 11. The very limited number of such rites in the Greek world fully justifies Walter Burkert's remark that "sacrifices without fire are rare, conscious exception^. Brommer, Frank. In both cases Athena remains a virgin. < fire for autochthony Heliosbeings but of artifacts resembling living beings. Athena used a piece of wool to wipe it off. Numa 9.5-6 informs us that whenever the perpetual fire was extinguished. FIRELESS SACRIFICES: PINDAR'S OLYMPIAN 7AND THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL, Pindar's Seventh Olympian Ode celebrates the Olympic boxing victory in 464 won by Diagoras of the Rhodian family of the Eratidai.' Pindar Isthmian 7.16–19. Without it the Athenian soil would remain barren. The birth of Athena, the institution or the renewal of the altar on the Acropolis, the agonistic fetching of fire with the hint at the fire god's sexuality, all are elements that unite the failure of the Rhodians and the success of the Athenians in one larger picture, that of a hypothetical primordial torch race be- tween Rhodes and Athens, which is similar to the actual races at the Panathenaia.34, Let us follow the course of this primordial race. In light of all this Athenian evidence. It is such a mishap of the Rhodians. 3d ed. Just as appropriately, however, the poem can be described as a brilliant hymn to Rhodes. Martin, R. P. "Fire on the Mountain: Lysistrata and the Lemnian Women." The land of the Rhodians, on the other hand, is fertilized once and for all as soon as it comes to light (literally). Vernant and Detienne, Les ruses 264-65. 1.26.6-7, with Frazer's commentary; Strabo 9.1.16; Plut. that the idea of Athenian autoch- thony became prominent in the first half of the fifth century would chime in well with Pindar's allusions to Rhodian autochthony. 4.43). 'The fact that in our poem Zeus' shower falls on an island, not a woman, does not invalidate the parallel: the double character of Rhodes, nymph and island, is empha- sized time and again (13-14, esp. Apart from the fact that gnomic statements such as this widen the import of the particular without having to correspond point by point to the details of the narrative, a more general paraphrase such as "the Rhodians forgot the commands of Heli~s"~~, would fit with both the Pindaric diction and with the context of the torch race. 570-84), and autochthonous Erikhthonios (Paus. But the means ex- plored by the Rhodian Athena are different: the dative aristoponois khersi (51), without explicitly precluding the use of fire, stresses none- theless a skill that is solely based on the excellent work of the hands. 1°For a summary bibliography see Robertson, "Origins" 232 n. 2. Duchemin, Jacqueline. An understanding of it is, however, not merely essential to any general theory of Pindar's metric … Interestingly, the weaving of Athena's peplos began at this festival of the bronzesmiths, exactly nine months before the Panathenaia and the celebration of Erikhthonios' birth. The treat- ment by Bresson. "7(92) Pindar, Olympian 8. Philologus 109 (1965) 161-74. Astron. hhHere the inclusion of her name between puteros and koruphun might lead one to believe. Tim. This becomes feasible because the function of the motherlwife is taken over by Rhodes, who, having no loyalties to a father, is emphatically depicted as the mother and wife. Pindar does not mention it, but his pr6toi implies priority in time over an adversary, and who can fail to think of the Athenians'? Pindar Olympian 1.28–32. Nagy, Gregory. Zeitlin, Frorna. Delcourt. 5.17; cf. Odes of Pindar (Myers)/Olympian Odes/7. What is more, it is rendered fertile not by the technical fire of Hephaistos, contaminated by usage, but by the pure and primeval fire of the sun: for in Greek ritual practice, the ultimate source of new fire, unimpaired and unpolluted, is the sun.73 Thus, while the Athenians have to renew their fire and transfer it through the annual torch race, the Rhodians do not need to, because the pure and unpolluted fire of Helios is enclosed, so to speak, in their land and lives on in their race. Dei 18.12). 57-60, on Athena as mother and nurse; cf. "60 It is as if the streets (keleuthoi) themselves gave birth to erga similar to living beings. Pindar (/ ˈ p ɪ n d ər /; Greek: Πίνδαρος Pindaros, ; Latin: Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved. Even the phrase kleos bathu (53), the "deep," profound glory of the Rhodians, may be meant to have chthonic overtones.63 Athenian autochthony and craft are thus collapsed, in Pindar's version of the Rhodian myth, into the striking picture of the artifacts that crawl on the ground. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985. H. Hom. On the multiple origin of Erikhthonios and on Athena's various functions see Loraux, Les enfants 22.57-65, esp. Caldwell. The interpretations proposed by the author - many of them which are new - are documented as fully, but at the same time as concisely, as possible. "Panathenaia" (citing Hellan. Their statues stood in Olympia (Paus. Robertson, Noel. Hence the Athenians need a yearly torch race to honor Athena and Erikhthonios and, of course, to renew the fertility of the land and the productivity of their craftsmen. Such a comparison of local ritual variants is especially apt in the case of 01. does not require the virgin goddess to use fire. 'C;rHisr 76 F 47. This typical use of htha for ritually incor- rect behavior is corroborated by the application of its opposite, mnc-, to ritual correctne~s.~~, Even if one is reluctant to relinquish the traditional-or rather unexamined-interpretation of LGthci, it is enough for the purpose of the present argument to grant that at least a secondary meaning, "failure to notice," cannot be pre~luded.~', This shade of meaning is underlined by the word atekmarta (43, "without mark, signs, warnings," that de- scribes the oncoming l~thd.~~. Hephaistos: der Schmiedegott in antiken Kunst. 8.426; 10.359). 8.44).17, It was that event that the Panathenaic torch race commemorated; or, conversely, the myth served as the aition for the ritual.I8 The run- ners, possibly reenacting Hephaistos' pursuit, started at the altar of Eros in the Academy and ran with their torches uphill to the Acropolis. WS 17 (1895) 180-96. Les ruses de I'intelligence: la Metis des Grecs. 106; and many others) or (b) evokes a special connection with the earth (Alkman 89.3 PMG). In Me'langes Paul Collart, edited by I? 48See, e.g., his assistants and the scenes on Akhilleus' shield (N. 18.417-20, 483- 608) or the dogs and kouroi in Alkinoos' palace (Od. At the same time. In 01. . 01. 1983. . 55New fire and craft are also associated in the case of Lemnos; cf. 01. and Turyn. This volume contains word-for-word commentaries on Pindar's Olympian Odes 3, 7, 12, 14. That Hephaistos' semen fell on the earth via Athena's thigh may not be accidental in light of Dionysus' birth from Zeus' thigh (E. Ba. lathd, lanthand. 8.555-65). These works will be referred to in the following paper by the author's name only. Pindar's Seventh Olympian Ode celebrates the Olympic boxing victory in 464 won by Diagoras of the Rhodian family of the Eratidai.' TO h' airro hiyerat bla- aa+?joul rois rfiv 'Arrlxfiv xarotxoCo~ bto xui +sat roils vkv 'Hhtubas bth rfiv anovhfiv CnthuHo~ivov~ nil@ CntH~ivut -cir 0upara, rov, Cv~yx~iv hi -COTE \3aath~liovru rujv 'AHqvaiwv KCx~orcu Cni roc nveoj HGaut -i;or&@ov. Bachelard, Gaston. It should be clear by now that the Rhodians could claim priority over the Athenians on various counts. Introduction Over the last century and a half numerous articles, notes, and chapters of books, several commentaries, and two scholarly monographs have been devoted to Olympian 71. These three instances are the only times she is mentioned in the ode. The appar- ent shift of emphasis here from the birth of Erikhthonios to that of Athena should not detain us. Bur- kert, Greek Religion 232, is confident that the torch race was a feature of the New Year festivities; cf. Heph 1-3; Pind. 11. In MPIanges Edouard Delebec,yrce. Prot. "The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Mythmaking in the Oresteia." as emphasized by the two datives: tekhnaisin and especially hhalkelut6i pelrhei, a collocation which im- plies the use of fire. Burkert, "Ja- son" 1-16. to add, only for the sake of completeness, the temple of Athena Khalkioikos in S~arta.~~. herpeton 11) (a) denotes movement that is close to the ground (e.g., 11. I suggest that we have "^ For the sake of precision, we have to make a distinction between fireless and bloodless offerings.6 The absence of fire from the latter would hardly be remarkable, of course, but there is no indication that Pindar's upurli hieru are blood- less. And its eccentricity is all the more striking if one bears in mind the way in which Athena was celebrated in the most famous of her festivals, the Panathenaia. Song und Action: The Victory Odes cf Pindar: Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. Pindac Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1945. Becker, Otfrid. Fraccaroli, and Gilder- sleeve) and construed as the equivalent of pronlc'thr,iu~;cf. 63See bathitn klaron in 01. the list of Diagoras' athletic victories see Young, 7'hrc.e Ode.5 91. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. Word Count: 555. Grummtrtik 11 595. Pindar. "7 The story illustrates Pindar's generous use of mythical catalogs, especially to introduce poems (cf. S.V. Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. when she jumps from the head of Zeus (ncxtteog 'ABavaia noeu@av xat' axeav. 70b.l-3) uses it of old-style dithyramb in a metaphorical way that suggests the movements of a snake (contra Bowra, Pindar 195). E. Herakl. "Jason, Hypsipyle, and New Fire at Lemnos." In order to be effective, that is, to exhibit a Panhellenic relevance and achieve a Pan- hellenic audience, Pindaric song had to transcend its epichoric charac- ter. Its outline is as follows. Helios is termed "the father of the piercing beams, the master of the fire-breathing horses" (70-71). also 210-13 on the expression oude melselhe lcthei. 6.89, 13.94, Nem. Especially memorable are Dorieus' active participation and reversals of fortune, as described by Pausanias (6.7.1-7, citing Androtion; see also Thuc. Arefhusa 11 (1978) 149-84. Loraux. Rhodes is fertilized, of course, by Helios, the primeval fire, which exists from the beginning. Rhod. forgetting the fire implies that the Rhodians revert to the pre-Promethean condition: forgetfulness is a way of honoring Zeus, without at the same time offending Prometheus. Generally, the root herp-, even when not used explicitly of reptiles and other creeping things (LSJ S.V. phero v. 61This homology is expressed at the foot of Athena's statue on the Acropolis, where Pheidias represented side by side Pandora, the living artifact par excellence (Hes. Both Martin and Burkert, "Jason," construe the Athenian festivals around the year ending and the New Year as multiforms to some degree of the Lemnian festival. Plat. 7. Ar~st. 23Burkert, "Jason" 1-16; Homo Necans 190-96; Robertson, "Origins" 274-81. Further, the overview by Robertson, "Origins" 241-53, of other festi- vals of Athena similar to the Panathenaia reveals that the Rhodian rite was unique. For Pindaric instances of alarh?slalatheia where the meaning "not unnoticed, not unrecognized" is prominent see 01. The homology between fire and sexuality in the context of the Rhodian rite was, moreover, already perceived in antiquity, albeit im- plicitly: we learn from the scholiast on 01.7.48 (Drachmann I 219-20) that Apollonios attributed the fireless sacrifices of the Rhodians to their enmity with Hephaistos on the grounds that the fire god had attempted to rape Athena. Erga 117; Hdt. It has commonly been recognized as differing from Pindar's other metres, but many opinions have been held of its character. 7 is also a good case in point. Munich: Hirmer, 1969. Lawall, Gilbert. Alternatively, (c) it designates movement, often but not exclusively metaphorical, that is stealthy or secret (S. Aj. Young, D. C. Three Odes ofPindar: Mnernosyne Supplement 9. (Apollod. The Rhodian myth of autochthony, therefore, is shown to claim a certain superiority to its Athenian counterpart. Pindar Olympian 9. In the retrogressive narrative of the poem the birth of the Heliadai, the Rhodian autochthons, comes well before the birth of Athena and the consequent engendering of Erikhthonios, the ancestor of the Athenian~.'~. This golden shower that can impregnate and gen- erate is familiar from two myths also attested in Pindar: those of Danae (Pyth. 19.34). in turn narrows down the focus and prepares for the return to the particular of the narrative. The chorus of the old men in the parodos of the Lysistrata climb up to the Propylaia carrying their firepots and singing (292-94): p4 p' &~O(J@E(J~$V tfi zeAeutfi tiis b8oij.43. Pindar's Rhodian version appropriates the Panathenaic model and thus attains a Panhellenic rele- vance and acceptance which the odd Rhodian rite could not assume by itself. Vernant, J.-P., and Marcel Detienne. "See Brelich, Paides 326-37, who suggests, however, that the torch race was only part of the quadrennial celebration, a "festa di rinnovamento" on a grander scale. 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