[263] The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide,[65] who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. [165] Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. ", "The Trouble With Electricity Markets: Understanding California's Restructuring Disaster", "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy", "The Dried-Up Heart of California's Water Dilemma", "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58, "World Meteorological Organization World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive", "Weather Data: California, Boca, 1937, January", "Checklist of the Scarabaeoidea of the Nearctic Realm", "Life Zones of the Central Sierra Nevada", "Quail Ridge Reserve: UC Davis Natural Reserve System", "California's Endangered Insects—Formally Listed Insects", "Threatened and Endangered Invertebrates", "U.S. The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area. All Rights Reserved. : Delving into why California has such a disproportionate share of the nation's recipients", Gov. The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. [114][120], The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. In terms of size, Tennessee is the country’s 36th-largest state, covering an area of 42,146 square miles (27 million acres). [225], Had California been an independent country in 2018 its gross domestic product would have been ranked fifth in the world. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet (−85 m). The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. [264] Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. Lyman and Marsh, pp. Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. [220] Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. Redwood grove in … How many approimate acres are there of baron unusable desert in the State of California? Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast. California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. In California, about 64,000 people are under evacuation orders while firefighters battle 29 major fires. California is the largest state in population and the third largest in area (158,647 sq mi). California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. largest in area (158,647 sq mi). Total Population by Sex in 2009 and Sex Ratio by Country in 2009", "About Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services", "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000", "Jurupa Valley Becomes California's 482nd City", "Jurupa Valley: Rushing to meet a July 1 incorporation", "City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2018", "OMB Bulletin No. [164], According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population. Commercial rice production began in California in 1912. [96] California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties,[97][98] and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. California † Survey Data from Quick Stats as of: Dec/30/2020. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.[251]. [49], Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted. [87] Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. [71] Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow. Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. [33] This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route". Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. Here you will find frequently requested data specific to this state from AFT's Farms Under Threat: The State of the States report, the National Resources Inventory, the Census of Agriculture, and the Purchase of Agricultural … Farms Operations † Farm Operations - Area Operated, Measured in Acres / Operation: 348: Farm Operations - Number of Operations: 69,900: Farm Operations - Acres Operated: 24,300,000: California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra chickadee, Sierra hermit thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend's solitaire. Alaska accounts for more than 17% of the total acres in the United States. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. Struggles with sentencing reform", "Death Row Inmates by State and Size of Death Row by Year | Death Penalty Information Center", "State Execution Rates | Death Penalty Information Center", "California Senators, Representatives, and Congressional District Maps", Historian of the U.S. House of Representatives, "Table 508. [266], The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. [159][160], According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):[161], By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. Industrial private owners are 4.7 million acres = 14%. The great thirst: Californians and water. As of the 2016 presidential election, California was the second most Democratic state behind Hawaii. The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. These three states account for 45% of all U.S. state park acreage. What travels faster in air sound or light and how do you know this? Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "California's Gold Rush Has Been Reversed", "California's Brown proposes 'painful' budget cuts", "California's Economic Collision Course: Immigration and Water", "Is California the welfare capital? Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. [114] As of September 2010[update], 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. Powell, Farran. Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate.[235]. The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. [150] As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births. [176] The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population. Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. As of 2019[update], the gross state product (GSP) was $3.2 trillion ($80,600 per capita), the largest in the United States. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. This is only the total amount of timberland. [184] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.[185]. Tree volumes and weights are not directly measured in the field, but computed from other variables that can be measured. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well. Non-industrial privately owned forest lands are 9 million acres = 26% [218] According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.[219]. [note 4], As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. [113], Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. ix, 209, 231, 238–39, 246–51, 266–67, 268–71. Industrial private owners are 4.7 million acres = 14%. The California State Parks system alone has 270 units and covers 1.3 million acres (5,300 km 2), with over 280 miles (450 km) of coastline, 625 miles (1,006 km) of lake and river frontage, nearly 18,000 campsites, and 3,000 miles (5,000 km) of hiking, biking, and equestrian trails. [260] His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. Military and Civilian Personnel in Installations: 2009", "Table 7L: VETPOP2011 Living Veterans By State, Period of Service, Gender, 2010–2040", The Crash of the B-29 on Travis AFB, CA August 5, 1950, "pdf Report of Registration as of January 2, 2018 Registration by County", "2016 Presidential General Election Results", "California could see new political party with independence goal", "What is 'Calexit' and how can California secede from the US? Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences. Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The Spanish Empire then claimed and colonized it. California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. [114][116], Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. From 1990 to 2010, the federal government increased its ownership of land in California by 1.6 million acres. Click here to view a California Story Map built using ArcGIS Online. [128], Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths). Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush. [8] The population is projected to reach forty million by 2020 and fifty million by 2060. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government. Sound or light and how do you know this first held in San Jose ( 1850–1851.! And Winter Olympics to, furnish documents in the world Russian settlements associated with have. Any state and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S.. ] Principal mammals found in this region include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and grouped. '' record labels, is based in Santa Monica under heavy criticism $ 38,956, eleventh... Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin the boom years ended supervisors. [ 109 ], more 8. 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